Use modern front-end tools in Maven
Posted on Saturday Apr 16, 2016 at 05:41PM in Build Tools
After years of owning a static - well, very static, neglected would be a better word - personal WordPress-powered website, I decided to start creating a new custom web application that will demonstrate my various web-dev capabilities and will also serve as my personal website. I can't say I will miss PHP for even a second
The site will use various back-end and front-end technologies interchangeably, for example parts of the back-end are written in Java 8, Groovy and - of course! - Nashorn. I normally would probably not do this on typical small production applications, but for a demo site I can justify this choice. Thanks to NetBeans IDE's excellent Maven support, I had no issues at all referring Groovy classes in Java code and vice-versa.
The site is under construction and not on-line yet at the time of this writing.
As I chose Facebook React as one of my front-end toolkits (only some interactive pages of my site will use it. At this time I won't use it globally for the whole site) with JSX to define views, I had to use modern front-end build tools for building the front-end.
- Node.js and NPM.js (for installing and running dependencies needed by the build tools)
- Bower (front-end dependency management)
- Babel (to convert JSX to plain JS code)
- Gulp.js (task-runner to automate the building and packaging)
Integrating front-end building tools with Maven
For this project I chose Apache Maven for building the back-end of the application. I know a lot of people don't really like Maven, but since I could follow the Maven convention quite well, I actually had a very pleasant time creating and using the project's pom.xml file file.
Note to self: Once the site is up and running, I want to experiment with ditching the Thymeleaf templates completely and let Nashorn create the whole HTML dynamically using the static JS files (as mentioned above, I already let Nashorn generate HTML for AJAX content on the back-end using the same code as the front-end uses, so I already did some initial work on this).
As it is right now, it made sense to make building of the front-end part of building the whole project.
Some older discussions on StackOverflow suggested this had to be done manually by calling scripts via Maven. Some developers use Ant tasks for this (which I planned to do as well, I think Ant tasks are really suited for this kind of work and those can easily be called by Maven as part of the building process).
Introducing the "frontend-maven-plugin" Maven plugin
Installing Node.js and NPM locally for the built project only.
This installation won't interfere with Node.JS/NPM that are already installed globally on the system and is only used to install the dependencies and execute the configured tools. This should work on modern Windows, OS X and most popular Linux systems.
- Execute "npm install" to install the dependencies required for building the front-end
- Execute "bower install" to install the dependencies required by the front-end (Bootstrap, or in my case Foundation Zurb 6, FontAwesome, etc.)
- Execute "gulp build" to run the various build task (as described above in my case this will call Babel to convert JSX to JS). Note that the plugin supports Grunt as well.
- Execute front-end unit-tests using Karma (I have not tried this feature yet, but I intend to try Karma soon)
- Execute WebPack module bundler (I have not yet tried this)
Configuring front-end-maven-plugin in pom.xml file
Adding those tasks to pom.xml was easy, the examples on the website were simple and easy to follow.
I made up my own directory convention. I chose to create a new "frontend" directory in my project's "src" directory to store all front-end related files. That directory contains the package.json (for NPM), gulpfile.js and bower.js files. I let Gulp create a dist directory here that contains the built files.
The directory structure looks like this:
Once built, I let Maven copy the full content of the "dist" directory to the project's resources/static directory as part of the project's build process, using the standard maven-resources-plugin.
In the frontend directory the "node_modules", "bower_components" and "dist" are stored (created by the different tools). I chose to also store the node.JS and NPM installation here in a directory that I called "node_maven". I made sure all those directories are ignored by my version control system, that's why those directories are colored gray in the screenshot above.
Here are the relevant entries in my pom.xml file:
<build> .... <plugins> .... <plugin> <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId> <version>3.0.0</version> <configuration> <followSymlinks>false</followSymlinks> <filesets> <fileset> <directory>src/main/resources/static</directory> </fileset> <fileset> <directory>src/main/frontend/dist</directory> </fileset> </filesets> </configuration> </plugin> <plugin> <groupId>com.github.eirslett</groupId> <artifactId>frontend-maven-plugin</artifactId> <!-- Use the latest released version: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/github/eirslett/frontend-maven-plugin/ --> <version>0.0.29</version> <executions> <execution> <id>install node and npm</id> <goals> <goal>install-node-and-npm</goal> </goals> <phase>generate-resources</phase> </execution> <execution> <id>npm install</id> <goals> <goal>npm</goal> </goals> <phase>generate-resources</phase> <configuration> <arguments>install</arguments> </configuration> </execution> <execution> <id>bower install</id> <goals> <goal>bower</goal> </goals> <configuration> <arguments>install</arguments> </configuration> </execution> <execution> <id>gulp build</id> <goals> <goal>gulp</goal> </goals> <phase>generate-resources</phase> <configuration> <arguments> build</arguments> </configuration> </execution> </executions> <configuration> <nodeVersion>v5.10.1</nodeVersion> <npmVersion>3.8.3</npmVersion> <workingDirectory>src/main/frontend/</workingDirectory> <installDirectory>src/main/frontend/node_maven/</installDirectory> </configuration> </plugin> <plugin> <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId> <version>2.7</version> <executions> <execution> <id>copy gulp dist files to static</id> <phase>generate-resources</phase> <goals> <goal>copy-resources</goal> </goals> <configuration> <outputDirectory>src/main/resources/static</outputDirectory> <resources> <resource> <directory>src/main/frontend/dist/</directory> <filtering>false</filtering> </resource> </resources> </configuration> </execution> </executions> </plugin> .... </plugins> .... </build>
Also shown in the example above is usage of the maven-clean-plugin plugin to clean the generated directories.
There are risks when using a plugin like this. For example, when Node.JS or NPM change their download URLs, the plugin will have to be updated. Also, it's hard to guess when new tools will arrive that will become more popular than Gulp, Bower, etc. Luckily the plugin is open-source, so anybody can change the code and hopefully adept it to new situations.
Another, probably more serious concern, is that using tools like this for every build will slow-down the build noticeably. From what I understand, the plugin has built-in support for incremental builds when using Eclipse, but I'm not sure how to do this when using NetBeans IDE at this time.
Finally, in this age of micro-services it makes a lot of sense to completely separate front-end and back-end projects from each other.
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